n 1930, at the Institute of Physiotherapy. Semashko, the first orthopedic clinic in the Republic with 30 beds was created (from 1930 to 1935 it was headed by Professor I.M. Chizhin). By the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek SSR (Protocol No. 26, paragraph 16 of October 2, 1932), in 1932, it was reorganized into the Research Institute of Orthopedics, Traumatology and Bone Tuberculosis with a clinic for 50, later - for 70 beds. The employees of the institute themselves (B.I.Berliner, L.I. Raikhshtein, A.G. Ezhkova and others) considered the foundation year of the Orthopedic Clinic to be the beginning of the formation of the institute, therefore on the title page of the First collection of works of UzNIITO there is a dedication “To the 5th anniversary of the ". Nevertheless, 1932 should be considered the documented date of the organization of the institute.
The first director of the newly organized Research Institute of Traumatology was prof. Chizhin I.M. In 1935, Professor S.V. Kofman, who became one of the organizers of orthopedic care in Uzbekistan. This year, the clinical base of the institute has expanded to 120 beds (50 orthopedic, 40 traumatological, 30 bone tuberculosis). An orthopedic dispensary and a 24-hour trauma center were opened at the clinic. In the same year, the first collection of scientific papers of the institute was published.
By 1940, a large group of orthopedic traumatologists was trained - specialists in bone tuberculosis, traumatologists, orthopedists and prosthetists: L.I. Rakhsheitn, S.I. Kutnovsky, B.I.
Berliner A.G. Ezhkova, M.I. Marchenko. M. L. Dmitriev, D. I. Rzhevsky, N.N. Rashchupkina, M.M. Nesterov, A.I. Zubkova, V.B. Kan, D. Rakhimov, V.N. Bekhtereva, O.Sh. Shakirov, N.M. Shamatov and others. In addition to the main work, the staff of the institute went to specialized medical institutions and provided practical assistance in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoarticular tuberculosis: in the sanatoriums "Orekhovaya Roshcha" (Tashkent), Samarkand, "Sitorai Mohihosa" (Bukhara) and in the sanatoriums of Kokand.
In order to develop the traumatological and orthopedic service in the Republic, the institute held special scientific conferences on the registration of injuries, on their treatment and prevention. So, in 1938, the first Republican trauma conference was held, in which all surgeons of city, district hospitals and polyclinics of Uzbekistan, surgeons of the Republics of Central Asia, Transcaucasia, Moscow, Leningrad participated. The most prominent traumatologists, Professor V.V. Gorinevskaya.
Until 1940, several thousand patients received treatment in the clinic of the institute. In 1940, the international situation escalated. The Hitlerite plague spread throughout Europe. Austria and Czechoslovakia were occupied. With the attack of the Nazis on Poland, World War II began. The enemy came close to the border of the former USSR. From day to day, menacing events could be expected. In these conditions, the country's economy began to move into a mode of preparation for war. In this connection, the training of military doctors has become a more important task than conducting scientific research. Considering these circumstances, the Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the People's Commissariat of Health of the Uzbek SSR was temporarily closed, and its clinics continued to work, an orthopedic dispensary and a 24-hour trauma center existed as independent institutions. Since the beginning of 1940, on the basis of orthopedic and traumatology clinics, a lot of work has been launched to train military doctors who graduated from institutes and underwent advanced training at the Institute for Advanced Medical Studies in military traumatology, orthopedics, prosthetics and plaster technology. Traumatologists-orthopedists trained in these clinics were partly mobilized to the front during the war years, where, as leading specialists, they led departments and hospitals for the treatment of wounded in the limbs and spine. Another part of the orthopedists was left in Tashkent as heads of departments in specialized orthopedic - traumatological and prosthetic and orthopedic hospitals.
World War II 1941-1945 gave a colossal number of gunshot injuries to the musculoskeletal system. At that time, many evacuation hospitals were deployed in Uzbekistan, in which surgeons and scientists worked: S.A. Novotelnov, M.D. Mikhelson, N.N. Bogoraz, M.S. Astrov, I.I. Orlov and others. The main task of the research work of this period was to find the most effective methods of treating military injuries, especially their complications: gunshot osteomyelitis, pseudoarthrosis, skeletal malformations and diseases of amputation stumps, etc. The institute dealt with these issues in the post-war years. Scientists of Uzbekistan made a great contribution to the development of this problem: B.I. Berliner, Shakirov O.Sh., B.A. Stekolnikov, O. Ya. Kaplan, A.G. Ezhkova, E.P. Telnova, N.M. Shamatov, N.N. Rashchupkina, G.A. Soboleva, A.M. Lozovaya, A. D. Isaeva, E. D. Bova and others In the first post-war five years (1946-1950), the Institute's employees were engaged in research aimed at finding the most effective methods of treating patients with the consequences of military injuries and restoring their ability to work. the place was occupied by the problem of treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of a firearm origin. A comprehensive study was made of patients with pseudarthrosis, bone defects, improperly fused fractures of a gunshot origin. Great importance was attached to the nature of the microflora of wounds in the pseudoarthrosis and its influence on the course of the postoperative period. Unremitting attention was paid to the treatment of trophic ulcers and long-term non-healing wounds formed as a result of damage to the nerve trunks and gunshot osteomyelitis In the clinic of maxillofacial surgery, a new and original method of closure of various facial defects was developed using for this purpose local tissues migrating to the scutes and cadaveric cartilage. During this time, the staff published 2 collections of scientific works of the institute, monographs "Essays on the work of evacuation hospitals in the Uzbek SSR" , "Increasing the function of the amputation stump of the forearm" . In 1948, the first scientific inter-republican conference on the treatment of invalids of the Second World War in Central Asia was held. Organizational issues and results of treatment of gunshot osteomyelitis, false joints and bone defects, as well as defects and diseases of amputation stumps and prosthetics were considered. The first post-war candidate dissertations were defended by VN Bekhtereva (1948) on the topic "To the characteristics of the feet of students in vocational schools" and D.I. Rzhevsky (1949) "The influence of complete or partial removal of the fibular
bones of the leg stump to increase its function. In 1951-1955 Institute researchers continued to develop effective methods of treatment and prosthetics of wartime injuries, conducted more in-depth laboratory studies. N.M. Shamatov investigated the functional efficiency of amputation stumps of the leg, operated on by the method of free bone grafting in a new modification, and defended his Ph.D. thesis (1951). Much work has been done to study methods of treating fractures and dislocations according to the data of traditional oriental medicine. The results were reflected in O.Sh. Shakirova "Methods of treatment of fractures and dislocations according to the data of oriental folk medicine" (1953). A.A.Adzhi-Mollaev investigated the clinical and radiological characteristics of the long-term outcomes of penetrating gunshot wounds to the chest and defended his doctoral dissertation (1953). The results of the study of unconditioned vegetative-vascular and skin-vegetative reflexes in amputated patients with pain syndromes were summarized in I.N. Dimanta (1955).
This period, as well as the subsequent five years (1956-1960), are characterized by the beginning of the study and preventive work of injuries in industry, agriculture of the republic and sports (B.I.Berliner, N.D. Isabaeva, R.M. Maksudov, V. V. Sinev, Sh.B. Turgunov and others). In research work, a significant place was given to the treatment of the severe consequences of poliomyelitis. Thus, methods were developed for stabilizing operations of the ankle joint (I.Kh. Ishanhodzhaev), tendon-muscular plastics (N.F. Fayzullaev), which significantly improved the musculoskeletal function of the affected limbs. At this time, the staff of the institute completed and defended one doctoral (A.G. Tishin) and three candidate (OG Terekhov, M.N. Khamitova, V.V.Sinev) theses. For the first time in the USSR since 1956 O.Sh. Shakirov at the institute conducted a comprehensive study of the folk drug mumiyo - asil as a biological means to accelerate the healing of bone fractures and wounds.
In the past five years, the main focus of the Institute has been integration processes. First of all, this concerns the integration of science and practical health care. The leadership of the republic has taken a number of measures aimed at increasing the level of specialized assistance in the regions and districts of our country. To solve this important task, the institute was appointed the head institution of the Republic with the conferring powers of the coordinator of organizational and methodological work in all specialized institutions in the regions.
The main form of work in this capacity was master classes, systematically conducted with the participation of leading specialists of the institute. The program of master classes provides for consultations of patients and joint operations with specialists in the field, as well as seminars and mini-conferences on modern technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and orthopedic diseases. Over the course of 5 years, dozens of events in this format have been held, as a result of which the widespread introduction of such technological types of traumatological and orthopedic care as endoprosthetics of large joints, arthroscopic interventions in the knee joint, minimally invasive spinal surgery, blocking osteosynthesis in long bone fractures and others has begun.
In addition, under the auspices of the institute, republican scientific and practical conferences were held annually, which were an important source in obtaining scientific information and exchange of experience.
Independence has made it possible for the widespread introduction of the latest and most advanced methods of diagnostics and treatment of traumatological and orthopedic diseases into the practical health care of the Republic through scientific and practical seminars, conferences of congresses, the release of methodological recommendations, monographs, demonstration operations, etc.
Since the institute's existence, its employees have written and published 63 monographs, published 83 collections of scientific papers, 310 brochures and methodological recommendations, received 298 patents for inventions. Over the past 25 years, 4 congresses and 14 scientific and practical conferences of traumatologists and orthopedists of the Republic of Uzbekistan have been held.
As the main scientific center of the country for traumatology and orthopedics, the institute coordinates activities, provides practical, scientific, and advisory assistance to specialists working in traumatologic-orthopedic institutions.As a result, effective technologies were introduced in the clinic of the institute, such as arthroscopy of large joints, surgeries for planovalgus foot in adolescents, operations for various deformities of the chest, operations for scoliosis.
Methods have been developed for hip arthroplasty for bone ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, acetabular component instability and a method for defective ruptures of the patella's own ligament. The patents "Device for determining the depth of planting of the acetabular component of the hip joint endoprosthesis" and "Method for the treatment of ruptures of the patellar ligament" were obtained. Based on the study of bone mineral density by X-ray densitometry in patients with lesions of the hip joint with nonspecific systemic diseases, a tactic of fixation in hip arthroplasty was developed.
A retrospective analysis of the causes of repeated surgical interventions in hip arthroplasty based on clinical-radiological and X-ray densitometric methods was carried out. The functional state of the thigh muscles was studied in dynamics on the basis of electromyography in patients with a rupture of their own patellar ligament in the recovery period. Metal cages for interbody stabilization of the spine and an endocorrector for correction during surgical stabilization of the thoracolumbar spine have been developed.
Methods for diagnostics and treatment of keeled chest deformities in children and adolescents have been developed and improved. The patent "Device for internal fixation for the treatment of keeled chest deformities" was obtained. A method has been developed for the treatment of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head using a collapan - a gel for filling the bone cavity in aseptic necrosis. Devices for the surgical treatment of diaphyseal fractures of the femur and for the development of an extra-bone device for the treatment of fractures of the distal end of the femur have been developed. Studies of the X-ray diagnostic department have determined the X-ray and sonographic features of the development (stage) of osteoarthritis of the knee joints. The nature of densitometric changes was determined depending on age, weight, sex and other individual factors. The relationship between the identified degenerative changes in the structures of the knee joint and the severity of structural changes in bone tissue was studied.
The own scientific research of the Institute's scientists, carried out during this period, was compiled taking into account the tasks set by the country's leadership and had an applied nature. The developments of the scientists of the institute were
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